- Directeur de l'Ecole Doctorale 353 - Sciences pour l'ingénieur
- Membre du Comité Scientifique de l'EUROFUSION - Theory and Advanced Simulation Coordination
- Editorial board Journal of Engineering
Activités
Ecoulements en rotation: Taylor-Couette, rotor-stator, éclatement tourbillonnaire, couches limites,...
Plasmas de tokamak: Modélisation, transport turbulent, plasma de bord
Méthodes numériques d'ordre élevé
Publications scientifiques au M2P2
2023
Thomas Cartier-Michaud, Philippe Ghendrih, Virginie Grandgirard, Eric Serre. Verification and accuracy check of simulations with PoPe and iPoPe. Journal of Computational Physics, 2023, 474, pp.111759. ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2022.111759⟩. ⟨hal-03871954⟩ Plus de détails...
The theoretical background of the PoPe and iPoPe verification scheme is presented. Verification is performed using the simulation output of production runs. The computing overhead is estimated to be at most 10%. PoPe or iPoPe calculations can be done offline provided the necessary data is stored, for example additional time slices, or online where iPoPe is more effective. The computing overhead is mostly that of storing the necessary data. The numerical error is determined and split into a part proportional to the operators, which are combined to form the equations to be solved, thus modifying their control parameters, completed by a residual error orthogonal to these operators. The accuracy of the numerical solution is determined by this modification of the control parameters. The PoPe and iPoPe methods are illustrated in this paper with simulations of a simple mechanical system with chaotic trajectories evolving into a strange attractor with sensitivity to initial conditions. We show that the accuracy depends on the particular simulation both because the properties of the numerical solution depend on the values of the control parameter, and because the target accuracy will depend on the problem that is addressed. One shows that for a case close to bifurcations between different states, the accuracy is determined by the level of detail of the bifurcation phenomena one aims at describing. A unique verification index, the PoPe index, is proposed to characterise the accuracy, and consequently the verification, of each production run. The PoPe output allows one to step beyond verification and analyse for example the numerical scheme efficiency. For the chosen example at fixed PoPe index, therefore at fixed numerical error, one finds that the higher order integration scheme, comparing order 4 to order 2 Runge-Kutta time stepping, reduces the computation cost by a factor 4.
Thomas Cartier-Michaud, Philippe Ghendrih, Virginie Grandgirard, Eric Serre. Verification and accuracy check of simulations with PoPe and iPoPe. Journal of Computational Physics, 2023, 474, pp.111759. ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2022.111759⟩. ⟨hal-03871954⟩
D Auroux, P Ghendrih, L Lamerand, F Rapetti, E Serre. Asymptotic behaviour, non-local dynamics and data assimilation tailoring of the reduced κ − ε model to address turbulent transport of fusion plasmas. Physics of Plasma, 2022. ⟨hal-03811621⟩ Plus de détails...
The high-dimensional and multiscale nature of fusion plasma flows require the development of reduced models to be implemented in numerical codes capable of capturing the main features of turbulent transport in a sufficiently short time to be useful during tokamak operation. This paper goes further in the analysis of the dynamics of the κ − ε model based on the turbulent kinetic energy κ and its dissipation rate ε [Baschetti et al., Nuc. Fus 61, 106020 (2021)] to improve the predictability of the transverse turbulent transport in simulation codes. Present 1D results show further capabilities with respect to current models (based on constant effective perpendicular diffusion) and on the standard quasi-linear approach. The nonlinear dependence of D in κ and ε estimated from two additional transport equations allow to introduce some non-locality in the transport model. This is illustrated by the existence of parameter ranges with turbulence spreading. The paper also addresses another issue related to the uncertainties on the inherent free parameters of such reduced model. The study proposes a new approach in the fusion community based on a variational data assimilation involving the minimisation of a cost function defined as the distance between the reference data and the calculated values. The results are good, and show the ability of the data assimilation to reduce uncertainties on the free parameters, which remains a critical point to ensure the total reliability of such an approach.
D Auroux, P Ghendrih, L Lamerand, F Rapetti, E Serre. Asymptotic behaviour, non-local dynamics and data assimilation tailoring of the reduced κ − ε model to address turbulent transport of fusion plasmas. Physics of Plasma, 2022. ⟨hal-03811621⟩
Guanxiong Wang, Song Zhao, Pierre Boivin, Eric Serre, Pierre Sagaut. A new hybrid lattice-Boltzmann method for thermal flow simulations in low-Mach number approximation. Physics of Fluids, 2022, 34 (4), pp.046114. ⟨10.1063/5.0091517⟩. ⟨hal-03796386⟩ Plus de détails...
A new low-Mach algorithm for the thermal lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is proposed aiming at reducing the computational cost of thermal flow simulations in the low Mach number limit. The well-known low Mach number approximation is adopted to accelerate the simulations by enlarging the time step through re-scaling the psuedoacoustic speed to the same order of the fluid motion velocity. This specific process is inspired by the similarity between the artificial compressibility method and the isothermal LBM and is further extended to its thermal counterpart. It must be emphasized that such low-Mach acceleration strategy is in a general form, thus can be easily applied to other compressible LB methods. The present method overcomes the drawback of the classical pressure gradient scaling method due to the pressure gradient changing. The new algorithm is validated by various well-documented academic test cases in laminar [one dimensional gravity column, 2D (two dimensional) rising thermal bubble, and 2D differentially heated square cavity] and turbulent [3D (three dimensional) Taylor–Green vortex and 3D heated cylinder] regimes. All the results show excellent agreement with the reference data and high computational efficiency.
Guanxiong Wang, Song Zhao, Pierre Boivin, Eric Serre, Pierre Sagaut. A new hybrid lattice-Boltzmann method for thermal flow simulations in low-Mach number approximation. Physics of Fluids, 2022, 34 (4), pp.046114. ⟨10.1063/5.0091517⟩. ⟨hal-03796386⟩
M Raghunathan, Y Marandet, H Bufferand, G Ciraolo, Ph Ghendrih, et al.. Multi-temperature Generalized Zhdanov Closure for Scrape-Off Layer/Edge Applications. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2022. ⟨hal-03810579⟩ Plus de détails...
The derivation of the multi-temperature generalized Zhdanov closure is provided starting from the most general form of the left hand side of the moment averaged kinetic equation with the Sonine-Hermite polynomial ansatz for an arbitrary number of moments. The process of arriving at the reduced higher-order moment equations, with its assumptions and approximations, is explicitly outlined. The generalized multi-species, multi-temperature coefficients from the authors' previous article are used to compute values of higher order moments such as heat flux in terms of the lower order moments. Transport coefficients and the friction and thermal forces for magnetic confinement fusion relevant cases with the generalized coefficients are compared to the scheme with the single-temperature coefficients previously provided by Zhdanov et al. It is found that the 21N-moment multi-temperature coefficients are adequate for most cases relevant to fusion. Furthermore, the 21N-moment scheme is also tested against the trace approximation to determine the range of validity of the trace approximation with respect to fusion relevant plasmas. Possible refinements to the closure scheme are illustrated as well, in order to account for quantities which might be significant in certain schemes such as the drift approximation.
M Raghunathan, Y Marandet, H Bufferand, G Ciraolo, Ph Ghendrih, et al.. Multi-temperature Generalized Zhdanov Closure for Scrape-Off Layer/Edge Applications. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2022. ⟨hal-03810579⟩
X Litaudon, F Jenko, D Borba, D Borodin, B J Braams, et al.. EUROfusion-theory and advanced simulation coordination (E-TASC): programme and the role of high performance computing. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2022, 64 (3), pp.034005. ⟨10.1088/1361-6587/ac44e4⟩. ⟨hal-03562886⟩ Plus de détails...
Abstract This paper is a written summary of an overview oral presentation given at the 1st Spanish Fusion High Performance Computer (HPC) Workshop that took place on the 27 November 2020 as an online event. Given that over the next few years ITER 24 24 ITER (‘The Way’ in Latin) is the world’s largest tokamak under construction in the south of France: a magnetic fusion device that has been designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy ( https://www.iter.org/ ). will move to its operation phase and the European-DEMO design will be significantly advanced, the EUROfusion consortium has initiated a coordination effort in theory and advanced simulation to address some of the challenges of the fusion research in Horizon EUROPE (2021–2027), i.e. the next EU Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development. This initiative has been called E-TASC, which stands for EUROfusion-Theory and Advanced Simulation Coordination. The general and guiding principles of E-TASC are summarized in this paper. In addition, an overview of the scientific results obtained in the pilot phase (2019–2020) of E-TASC are provided while highlighting the importance of the required progress in computational methods and HPC techniques. In the initial phase, five pilot theory and simulation tasks were initiated: towards a validated predictive capability of the low to high transition and pedestal physics; runaway electrons in tokamak disruptions in the presence of massive material injection; fast code for the calculation of neoclassical toroidal viscosity in stellarators and tokamaks; development of a neutral gas kinetics modular code; European edge and boundary code for reactor-relevant devices. In this paper, we report on recent progress made by each of these projects.
X Litaudon, F Jenko, D Borba, D Borodin, B J Braams, et al.. EUROfusion-theory and advanced simulation coordination (E-TASC): programme and the role of high performance computing. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2022, 64 (3), pp.034005. ⟨10.1088/1361-6587/ac44e4⟩. ⟨hal-03562886⟩
D. Galassi, C. Theiler, T. Body, F. Manke, P. Micheletti, et al.. Validation of edge turbulence codes in a magnetic X-point scenario in TORPEX. Physics of Plasmas, 2022, 29 (1), pp.012501. ⟨10.1063/5.0064522⟩. ⟨hal-03566373⟩ Plus de détails...
D. Galassi, C. Theiler, T. Body, F. Manke, P. Micheletti, et al.. Validation of edge turbulence codes in a magnetic X-point scenario in TORPEX. Physics of Plasmas, 2022, 29 (1), pp.012501. ⟨10.1063/5.0064522⟩. ⟨hal-03566373⟩
M Scotto d'Abusco, G Giorgiani, J F Artaud, H Bufferand, G Ciraolo, et al.. Core-edge 2D fluid modeling of full tokamak discharge with varying magnetic equilibrium: from WEST start-up to ramp-down. Nuclear Fusion, 2022, ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac47ad⟩. ⟨hal-03509800⟩ Plus de détails...
In the present work we investigate for the first time the 2D fluid transport of the plasma in WEST during an entire discharge from the start-up to the ramp-down (shot #54487). The evolution of density profile, electron and ion temperatures together with the experimental magnetic equilibrium, total current and gas-puff rate is investigated. Comparisons with the interferometry diagnostic show a remarkable overall qualitative agreement during the discharge that can be quantitative at some locations in the plasma core. If at the onset of the X-points during the ramp-up the electron heat flux is dominant at the target, present results show that the ion heat flux becomes dominant during the stationary phase of the discharge. Using a simple model for erosion, present results assess the tungsten sputtering due to deuterium ions during the start-up and ramp-up phases of the discharge and confirms the need to consider full discharge simulation to accurately treat the W source of contamination. This work also demonstrates the interest of developing magnetic equilibrium free solver including efficient time integration to step toward predictive capabilities in the future for fusion operation.
M Scotto d'Abusco, G Giorgiani, J F Artaud, H Bufferand, G Ciraolo, et al.. Core-edge 2D fluid modeling of full tokamak discharge with varying magnetic equilibrium: from WEST start-up to ramp-down. Nuclear Fusion, 2022, ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac47ad⟩. ⟨hal-03509800⟩
D.S. Oliveira, T. Body, D. Galassi, C. Theiler, E. Laribi, et al.. Validation of edge turbulence codes against the TCV-X21 diverted L-mode reference case. Nuclear Fusion, 2022, 62 (9), pp.096001. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac4cde⟩. ⟨hal-03740877⟩ Plus de détails...
Self-consistent full-size turbulent-transport simulations of the divertor and scrape-off-layer (SOL) of existing tokamaks have recently become feasible. This enables the direct comparison of turbulence simulations against experimental measurements. In this work, we perform a series of diverted ohmic L-mode discharges on the tokamak à configuration variable (TCV) tokamak, building a first-of-a-kind dataset for the validation of edge turbulence models. This dataset, referred to as TCV-X21 , contains measurements from five diagnostic systems from the outboard midplane (OMP) to the divertor targets—giving a total of 45 one- and two-dimensional comparison observables in two toroidal magnetic field directions. The experimental dataset is used to validate three flux-driven 3D fluid-turbulence models—GBS, GRILLIX and TOKAM3X. With each model, we perform simulations of the TCV-X21 scenario, individually tuning the particle and power source rates to achieve a reasonable match of the upstream separatrix value of density and electron temperature. We find that the simulations match the experimental profiles for most observables at the OMP—both in terms of profile shape and absolute magnitude—while a comparatively poorer agreement is found towards the divertor targets. The match between simulation and experiment is seen to be sensitive to the value of the resistivity, the heat conductivities, the power injection rate and the choice of sheath boundary conditions. Additionally, despite targeting a sheath-limited regime, the discrepancy between simulations and experiment also suggests that the neutral dynamics should be included. The results of this validation show that turbulence models are able to perform simulations of existing devices and achieve reasonable agreement with experimental measurements. Where disagreement is found, the validation helps to identify how the models can be improved. By publicly releasing the experimental dataset and validation analysis, this work should help to guide and accelerate the development of predictive turbulence simulations of the edge and SOL.
D.S. Oliveira, T. Body, D. Galassi, C. Theiler, E. Laribi, et al.. Validation of edge turbulence codes against the TCV-X21 diverted L-mode reference case. Nuclear Fusion, 2022, 62 (9), pp.096001. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac4cde⟩. ⟨hal-03740877⟩
Guanxiong Wang, Song Zhao, Pierre Boivin, Eric Serre, Pierre Sagaut. A new hybrid Lattice-Boltzmann method for thermal flow simulations in low-Mach number approximation. Physics of Fluids, 2022, Physics of fluids, 34 (046114). ⟨hal-03636905⟩ Plus de détails...
Guanxiong Wang, Song Zhao, Pierre Boivin, Eric Serre, Pierre Sagaut. A new hybrid Lattice-Boltzmann method for thermal flow simulations in low-Mach number approximation. Physics of Fluids, 2022, Physics of fluids, 34 (046114). ⟨hal-03636905⟩
Giacomo Piraccini, Marcello Capasso, Manuel Scotto d'Abusco, Giorgio Giorgiani, Frédéric Schwander, et al.. Recent upgrades in a 2D turbulent transport solver based on a hybrid discontinuous Galerkin method for the simulation of fusion plasma in tokamak. Fluids, 2022, ⟨10.3390/fluids7020063⟩. ⟨hal-03562497⟩ Plus de détails...
The simulation of fusion plasmas in realistic magnetic configurations and tokamak ge-1 ometries still requires the development of advanced numerical algorithms owing to the complexity 2 of the problem. In this context, we propose a Hybrid Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) method to 3 solve 2D transport fluid equations in realistic magnetic and tokamak wall geometries. This high-4 order solver can handle magnetic equilibrium free structured and unstructured meshes allowing a 5 much more accurate discretization of the plasma facing components than current solvers based 6 on magnetic field aligned methods associated to finite-differences (volumes) discretization. In 7 addition, the method allows to handle realistic magnetic equilibrium, eventually non steady, a 8 critical point in the modelling of full discharges including ramp up and ramp down phases. In 9 this paper, we introduce the HDG algorithm with a special focus on recent developments related 10 to the treatment of the cross-field diffusive terms, and to an adaptive mesh refinement technique 11 improving the numerical efficiency and robustness of the scheme. The updated solver is verified 12 with a manufactured solution method, and numerical tests are provided to illustrate the new 13 capabilities of the code.
Giacomo Piraccini, Marcello Capasso, Manuel Scotto d'Abusco, Giorgio Giorgiani, Frédéric Schwander, et al.. Recent upgrades in a 2D turbulent transport solver based on a hybrid discontinuous Galerkin method for the simulation of fusion plasma in tokamak. Fluids, 2022, ⟨10.3390/fluids7020063⟩. ⟨hal-03562497⟩
Lincheng Xu, Eric Serre, Pierre Sagaut. A theoretical analysis of mass leakage at boundaries within the lattice Boltzmann method. Physics of Fluids, 2022, Physics of fluids, 34 (065113). ⟨hal-03683744⟩ Plus de détails...
Mass leakage at boundaries can be a critical issue for reliability of the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method based on Cartesian grids. Despite numerous work based on the LB method, the intrinsic macroscopic mechanisms causing mass leakage are still not fully charac- terised, but are essential to improve the mass conservation of LB simulations. In this paper, an original theoretical investigation of mass leakage at boundaries is proposed within the general LB framework. It is demonstrated that the mass leakage originates from the in- trinsic deficiency of the wall-cut LB links at boundary nodes in recovering macroscopic momenta. From a mesoscopic-level definition, i.e. the net loss of distribution functions during the streaming process, the local mass leakage at individual boundary nodes and its averaged value along smooth boundaries are mathematically expressed using macroscopic variables. The local mass leakage is shown to be dominated by terms proportional to the tangential momentum component. In contrast, the averaged mass leakage is shown to be contributed from various terms including the boundary curvature, the tangential momen- tum, and the gradients of density, momentum and momentum flux. Meanwhile, amplitude of the averaged mass leakage is theoretically estimated to be proportional to the local grid spacing, based on which a first-order accurate correction scheme is proposed. In addition, both the local and averaged mass leakage are demonstrated to be significantly dependent on boundary orientation with respect to the grid. The proposed theoretical analysis is assessed by performing numerical experiments. Two-dimensional weakly compressible flows through straight and curved moving channels are considered to estimate each term appearing in the theoretical analysis. The numerical results are in very good agreement with the proposed analysis, and the proposed mass correction scheme based on the av- eraged mass leakage effectively cures the mass leakage problems in the considered test cases.
Lincheng Xu, Eric Serre, Pierre Sagaut. A theoretical analysis of mass leakage at boundaries within the lattice Boltzmann method. Physics of Fluids, 2022, Physics of fluids, 34 (065113). ⟨hal-03683744⟩
Guanxiong Wang, Lincheng Xu, Eric Serre, Pierre Sagaut. Large temperature difference heat dominated flow simulations using a pressure-based lattice Boltzmann method with mass correction. Physics of Fluids, 2021, 33 (11), pp.116107. ⟨10.1063/5.0073178⟩. ⟨hal-03438869⟩ Plus de détails...
This paper addresses simulation of heat dominated compressible flows in a closed cavity using a pressure-based lattice Boltzmann (LB) method, in which thermal effects are modeled by applying a pressure-featured zero-order moment of distribution functions. A focus is made on the conservation of mass at boundary nodes, which is a challenging issue that significantly complicated by the density-decoupled zero-order moment here. The mass leakage at boundary nodes is mathematically quantified, which enables an efficient local mass correction scheme. The performance of this solver is assessed by simulating buoyancy-driven flows in a closed deferentially heated cavity with large temperature differences (non-Boussinesq) at Rayleigh numbers ranging from 103 to 107. Simulations show that mass leakage at solid walls in such configurations is a critical issue to obtain reliable solutions, and it eventually leads to simulations overflow when the cavity is inclined. The proposed mass correction scheme is, however, shown to be effective to control the mass leakage and get accurate solutions. Thus, associated with the proposed mass conservation scheme, the pressure-based LB method becomes reliable to study natural convection dominated flows at large temperature differences in closed geometries with mesh aligned boundaries or not
Guanxiong Wang, Lincheng Xu, Eric Serre, Pierre Sagaut. Large temperature difference heat dominated flow simulations using a pressure-based lattice Boltzmann method with mass correction. Physics of Fluids, 2021, 33 (11), pp.116107. ⟨10.1063/5.0073178⟩. ⟨hal-03438869⟩
H. Bufferand, J. Bucalossi, G. Ciraolo, G. Falchetto, A. Gallo, et al.. Progress in edge plasma turbulence modelling hierarchy of models from 2D transport application to 3D fluid simulations in realistic tokamak geometry. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, 61 (11), pp.116052. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac2873⟩. ⟨hal-03377162⟩ Plus de détails...
This contribution presents the recent effort at CEA and French federation for Fusion to simulate edge plasma transport with the new code SOLEDGE3X. The latter can be used both as a 2D transport code or as a 3D turbulence code. It makes possible simulating edge plasma up to the first wall including the complex wall geometry. It also includes neutral recycling and impurity sputtering, seeding and transport. In order to improve turbulence description in transport simulation, a reduced model for turbulence intensity prediction has been derived and implemented, based on "kepsilon" like models from the neutral fluid community. Applications to a JET L-mode detached plasma and to a WEST plasma are used as illustration of the code abilities
H. Bufferand, J. Bucalossi, G. Ciraolo, G. Falchetto, A. Gallo, et al.. Progress in edge plasma turbulence modelling hierarchy of models from 2D transport application to 3D fluid simulations in realistic tokamak geometry. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, 61 (11), pp.116052. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac2873⟩. ⟨hal-03377162⟩
S. Baschetti, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, Ph Ghendrih, E. Serre, et al.. Self-consistent cross-field transport model for core and edge plasma transport. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, 61 (10), pp.106020. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac1e60⟩. ⟨hal-03380310⟩ Plus de détails...
A two-equation model to self-consistently determine cross-field fluxes in the edge and scrape-off layer region of diverted plasma is used to complete 2D mean-field edge transport description of plasma wall interaction. Inspired by the Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes simulations for neutral fluids, this model is based on the local evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy κ and its dissipation rate ε. These two equations are algebraically derived for RANS modeling and are very slightly modified and adapted to describe self-consistent plasma turbulent transport. The general features of the model are discussed and bridged to the well-known predatorprey and quasilinear models commonly used to investigate plasma transport. Specific closures are proposed based on the interchange turbulence. Results of the 1D model are confronted to experimental evidence by analyzing the computed SOL width and comparing the results to the existing scaling law for L-mode plasmas. Introducing a dependence on the shear of large scale flows, typically the zonal flows, 1D simulations can exhibit an H-mode like transition when increasing the input power, generating an increased stored energy thanks to an interface barrier located at the separatrix. Further 2D plasma-wall interaction simulations for WEST are analyzed that show a good match with the experimental profiles, as well as a ballooned transport driving turbulent transport in the divertor SOL and nearly no transport in the private flux region. The SOL width of WEST is also recovered. These results show the remarkable capability of the κ-ε model to capture key aspects of the physics of turbulent transport throughout the plasma knowing that a unique scalar free parameter is available to tune cross field transport in the whole 2D cross section of the plasma.
S. Baschetti, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, Ph Ghendrih, E. Serre, et al.. Self-consistent cross-field transport model for core and edge plasma transport. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, 61 (10), pp.106020. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac1e60⟩. ⟨hal-03380310⟩
S. Di Genova, A. Gallo, N. Fedorczak, H. Yang, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Modelling of tungsten contamination and screening in WEST plasma discharges. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, 61 (10), pp.106019. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac2026⟩. ⟨hal-03380329⟩ Plus de détails...
The WEST experiment is currently operating with tungsten plasma-facing components and testing ITER-like divertor monoblocks. In order to support WEST experiments interpretation, numerical analyses were carried out. Starting from WEST experimental data, realistic background plasma conditions were reproduced through SolEdge-EIRENE and used as input for ERO2.0 simulations to investigate tungsten migration. Tungsten contamination due to the different plasma-facing components was modelled under different plasma conditions, highlighting a non-negligible contribution of tungsten coming from the tokamak main chamber. Tungsten penetration factor was computed and used as an indication for tungsten screening by the background plasma at the different tokamak plasma-facing components. Simulations showed the main chamber components to be very weakly screened. Light impurities charge was showed to influence not only tungsten sputtering, but also its probability to enter the confined plasma. Simulations results indicated that even when the tungsten source is not heavily influenced by self-sputtering, contamination of the confined plasma can be strongly impacted by it in low density background plasma conditions. Finally, a one-to-one comparison between tungsten visible spectroscopy at the lower divertor from experimental data and from synthetic diagnostics was performed, showing that it is possible to reproduce a realistic lower divertor signal following experimental evidence on light impurities asymmetry between the targets.
S. Di Genova, A. Gallo, N. Fedorczak, H. Yang, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Modelling of tungsten contamination and screening in WEST plasma discharges. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, 61 (10), pp.106019. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac2026⟩. ⟨hal-03380329⟩
M Raghunathan, Y Marandet, H Bufferand, G Ciraolo, Ph Ghendrih, et al.. Generalized Collisional Fluid Theory for Multi-Component, Multi-Temperature Plasma Using The Linearized Boltzmann Collision Operator for Scrape-Off Layer/Edge Applications. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2021, 63 (6), pp.064005. ⟨10.1088/1361-6587/abf670⟩. ⟨hal-03384547⟩ Plus de détails...
M Raghunathan, Y Marandet, H Bufferand, G Ciraolo, Ph Ghendrih, et al.. Generalized Collisional Fluid Theory for Multi-Component, Multi-Temperature Plasma Using The Linearized Boltzmann Collision Operator for Scrape-Off Layer/Edge Applications. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2021, 63 (6), pp.064005. ⟨10.1088/1361-6587/abf670⟩. ⟨hal-03384547⟩
E. Laribi, E. Serre, P. Tamain, H. Yang. Impact of negative triangularity on edge plasma transport and turbulence in TOKAM3X simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2021, pp.101012. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2021.101012⟩. ⟨hal-03214958⟩ Plus de détails...
The impact of triangularity on edge plasma transport and turbulence is addressed from full 3D turbulence simulations performed with TOKAM3X. Flux driven fluid simulations are run on analytical magnetic equilibria generated with positive and negative triangularity δ in a bottom limiter configuration. The conservation of the energy is assured by the increase of the bottom limiter radial position from δ > 0 to δ < 0. Changing the triangularity impacts both the plasma equilibrium and the turbulence. In particular, negative triangularity leads to a reduction of the density and electron temperature decay lengths in agreement with the literature. Concerning the turbulence, in all the simulations, it remains ballooned with an enhanced level of fluctuations at low field side in comparison to the high field one. Moreover, no clear trend is visible on the relative level of fluctuations of both density and electron temperature in the CFR whereas an enhancement (resp. reduction) is visible in the scrape-off layer at the low field side midplane for the negative (resp. positive) triangularity simulations. This behaviour differs from TCV and DIII-D measurements which show the benefit of negative triangularity in terms of turbulence reduction and increased confinement. However, no conclusion is drawn from our preliminary study concerning the impact of triangularity on the turbulent transport. Change in triangularity impacts many simulation control parameters, as in the experiments, and that the analysis of its impact alone on the dynamics of the plasma is not obvious in this configuration.
E. Laribi, E. Serre, P. Tamain, H. Yang. Impact of negative triangularity on edge plasma transport and turbulence in TOKAM3X simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2021, pp.101012. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2021.101012⟩. ⟨hal-03214958⟩
G. Ciraolo, S. Di Genova, H. Yang, A. Gallo, N. Fedorczak, et al.. INTERPRETATIVE MODELING OF IMPURITY TRANSPORT AND TUNGSTEN SOURCES IN WEST BOUNDARY PLASMA. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, 61 (12), pp.126015. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac2439⟩. ⟨hal-03420146⟩ Plus de détails...
The contamination of core plasma by high-Z impurities, especially tungsten (W), is the main reason of very high level of radiated power in WEST experiments. Intrinsic light impurities, mainly oxygen and carbon, play a dominant role in the sputtering of W on plasma facing components. In this contribution, we present a detailed analysis of WEST experiments supported by numerical modeling performed with the transport code SOLEDGE-EIRENE providing a clear picture of light impurities transport and poloidal distribution. Moreover, making use of SOLEDGE-ERO2.0 simulations, possible strategies to reduce core contamination due to W penetration are presented. .
G. Ciraolo, S. Di Genova, H. Yang, A. Gallo, N. Fedorczak, et al.. INTERPRETATIVE MODELING OF IMPURITY TRANSPORT AND TUNGSTEN SOURCES IN WEST BOUNDARY PLASMA. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, 61 (12), pp.126015. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac2439⟩. ⟨hal-03420146⟩
Raffaele Tatali, Eric Serre, Patrick Tamain, Davide Galassi, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. Impact of collisionality on turbulence in the edge of tokamak plasma using 3D global simulations. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/abe98b⟩. ⟨hal-03182318⟩ Plus de détails...
Collisionality is one of the key parameters in determining turbulent transport in the plasma edge, regulating phenomena such as "shoulder formation", separation of scale lengths in the scrape-off layer, turbulence damping and zonal flow dynamics. Understanding its role is therefore of primary importance for future reactors like ITER. Obtaining reliable predictions and a better characterization of plasma flow properties when varying collisionality remains, however, a critical challenge for the simulations. This paper focuses on the impact of varying collisionality in a nonisothermal three-dimensional fluid model of the plasma edge. A high field side limited configuration encompassing open and closed magnetic field lines with parameters typical of a medium-sized tokamak is considered. The present model can consistently account for the variations of collisionality and its impact on both the parallel resistivity η and the ion and electron parallel thermal conductivities χ e,i. Details on mean flow and turbulence properties are given. Changing collisionality leads to significant changes in the flow properties both on the mean and fluctuating quantities. In particular, lowering collisionality decreases the size of coherent structures, the fluctuation levels of turbulence, and steepens the density and temperature equilibrium profiles around the separatrix leading to a global reduction of the turbulent transport. The scrape-off layer (SOL) width is observed to increase with collisionality, eventually resulting in the disappearance of the scale lengths separation between near and far SOL, consistently with previous experimental observations. At low collisionality, where the presence of narrow feature is well-established, a contribution of heat conduction increases up to compete with heat convection.
Raffaele Tatali, Eric Serre, Patrick Tamain, Davide Galassi, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. Impact of collisionality on turbulence in the edge of tokamak plasma using 3D global simulations. Nuclear Fusion, 2021, ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/abe98b⟩. ⟨hal-03182318⟩
B D Dudson, W A Gracias, R Jorge, A H Nielsen, J M B Olsen, et al.. Edge turbulence in ISTTOK: a multi-code fluid validation. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2021. ⟨hal-03179634⟩ Plus de détails...
B D Dudson, W A Gracias, R Jorge, A H Nielsen, J M B Olsen, et al.. Edge turbulence in ISTTOK: a multi-code fluid validation. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2021. ⟨hal-03179634⟩
B Luce, P Tamain, G Ciraolo, Ph Ghendrih, G Giorgiani, et al.. Impact of three-dimensional magnetic perturbations on turbulence in tokamak edge plasmas. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2021, ⟨10.1088/1361-6587/abf03f 2021⟩. ⟨hal-03144400⟩ Plus de détails...
The impact of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) on the plasma edge equilibrium and on the turbulence is investigated in a circular limited configuration. The study is based on a Braginski-based isothermal fluid model. The flow response of an unperturbed case to a small amplitude three-dimensional single mode RMP is studied and a scan in amplitude and poloidal and toroidal mode number is performed. Special attention is given when magnetic islands appear in the simulation domain on flux surfaces of rational safety factor. Results show an impact of Magnetic Perturbations (MPs) on both the plasma equilibrium and on the turbulence properties, with a deviation to the reference solution which depends on the MPs amplitude and on their wavenumbers. The impact of MPs on turbulence is however globally weaker than on the plasma equilibrium, suggesting a stabilizing effect of the MP on turbulent transport. Experimental trends are recovered such as the density pump-out and the increase of the radial electric field as well as the reorganization of the parallel velocity. The ballooning of the transport is modified under the effect of the perturbations, with a shift of the peaked poloidal region from the upper to the lower outer midplane. In the present model, the SOL width is observed decreasing in the presence of MPs. Turbulence properties are also impacted with the density fluctuations level decreasing in perturbed solutions and the intermittency is globally weakened.
B Luce, P Tamain, G Ciraolo, Ph Ghendrih, G Giorgiani, et al.. Impact of three-dimensional magnetic perturbations on turbulence in tokamak edge plasmas. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, 2021, ⟨10.1088/1361-6587/abf03f 2021⟩. ⟨hal-03144400⟩
G Giorgiani, H. Bufferand, F. Schwander, E. Serre, P. Tamain. A high-order non field-aligned approach for the discretization of strongly anistropic diffusion operators in magnetic fusion. Computer Physics Communications, 2020, 254, pp.107375. ⟨10.1016/j.cpc.2020.107375⟩. ⟨hal-02613709⟩ Plus de détails...
In this work we present a hybrid discontinuous Galerkin scheme for the solution of extremely anisotropic diffusion problems arising in magnetized plasmas for fusion applications. Unstructured meshes, non-aligned with respect to the dominant diffusion direction, allow an unequalled flexibility in discretizing geometries of any shape, but may lead to spurious numerical diffusion. Curved triangles or quadrangles are used to discretize the poloidal plane of the machine, while a structured discretization is used in the toroidal direction. The proper design of the numerical fluxes guarantees the correct convergence order at any anisotropy level. Computations performed on well-designed 2D and 3D numerical tests show that non-aligned discretizations are able to provide spurious diffusion free solutions as long as high-order interpolations are used. Introducing an explicit measure of the numerical diffusion, a careful investigation is carried out showing an exponential increase of this latest with respect to the non-alignment of the mesh with the diffusion direction, as well as an exponential decrease with the polynomial degree of interpolation. A brief assessment of the method with respect to two finite-difference schemes using non-aligned discretization, but classically used in fusion modeling, is also presented.
G Giorgiani, H. Bufferand, F. Schwander, E. Serre, P. Tamain. A high-order non field-aligned approach for the discretization of strongly anistropic diffusion operators in magnetic fusion. Computer Physics Communications, 2020, 254, pp.107375. ⟨10.1016/j.cpc.2020.107375⟩. ⟨hal-02613709⟩
T. Cartier-Michaud, D. Galassi, Ph Ghendrih, P. Tamain, F. Schwander, et al.. A posteriori error estimate in fluid simulations of turbulent edge plasmas for magnetic fusion in tokamak using the data mining iPoPe method. Physics of Plasmas, 2020. ⟨hal-02613800⟩ Plus de détails...
Progressing towards more reliable numerical solutions in the simulation of plasma for magnetic confinement fusion has become a critical issue for the success of the ITER operation. This requires developing rigorous and efficient methods of verification of the numerical simulations in any relevant flow regimes of the operation. The paper introduces a new formulation of the PoPe 1 method, namely the independent Projection on Proper elements method (iPoPe) to quantify the numerical error by performing a data-driven identification of the mathematical model from the simulation outputs. Based on a statistical postprocessing of the outputs database, the method provides a measure of the error by estimating the distance between the (numerical) effective and (analytical) theoretical weights of each operator implemented in the mathematical model. The efficiency of the present method is illustrated on turbulent edge plasma simulations based on a drift-reduced Braginskii fluid model in realistic magnetic geometries. Results show the effective order of the numerical method in these multiscale flow regimes as well as the values of the plasma parameters which can be safely simulated with respect to a given discretization. In this sense, the method goes one step further than the Method of Manufactured Solution (MMS 2-4), recently introduced in fusion, and provides an efficient verification procedure of the numerical simulations in any regimes, including turbulent ones that could be generalized to other scientific domains.
T. Cartier-Michaud, D. Galassi, Ph Ghendrih, P. Tamain, F. Schwander, et al.. A posteriori error estimate in fluid simulations of turbulent edge plasmas for magnetic fusion in tokamak using the data mining iPoPe method. Physics of Plasmas, 2020. ⟨hal-02613800⟩
R. Mao, N. Fedorczak, G. Ciraolo, H. Bufferand, Y. Marandet, et al.. Impact of an alternative divertor configuration on plasma detachment: pure deuterium simulations using the SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE edge transport code for HL-2M scenarios. Nuclear Fusion, 2019, 59 (10), pp.106019. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ab3005⟩. ⟨hal-02468022⟩ Plus de détails...
The SOLEDGE-EIRENE edge plasma code provides solutions for particle and energy transport in the plasma edge within complex and realistic 2D geometries (Bufferand et al 2015 Nucl. Fusion 55 053025). In this work, divertor detachment is simulated on HL-2M alternative magnetic configurations in pure deuterium plasma. Starting from a typical HL-2M low single-null configuration, the snowflake plus (SF+) and snowflake minus (SF-) configurations have then been investigated. Detachment of the outer target is studied in these configurations during plasma density ramps controlled by a fueling source, with constant input power and constant radial transport coefficients. Some typical characteristics of detachment, like threshold, depth and upstream window of detachment are investigated. In the three geometries, detachment onset and evolution with upstream plasma density is characterized by the gradual displacement of a radiation front from the outer target to the main X-point, as observed in experiments. It is found that, whatever the detachment in terms of particle, momentum or power dissipation, the detachment threshold is dominated primarily by the geometrical structure of the divertor plate and does not exhibit dependence on the magnetic configuration of the diverted plasma volume. In particular, the parallel connection length in the divertor is not found to affect the detachment threshold, in contrast with simple expectations from the two-point model, but in agreement with experimental findings.
R. Mao, N. Fedorczak, G. Ciraolo, H. Bufferand, Y. Marandet, et al.. Impact of an alternative divertor configuration on plasma detachment: pure deuterium simulations using the SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE edge transport code for HL-2M scenarios. Nuclear Fusion, 2019, 59 (10), pp.106019. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ab3005⟩. ⟨hal-02468022⟩
F. Nespoli, P. Tamain, N. Fedorczak, G. Ciraolo, D. Galassi, et al.. 3D structure and dynamics of filaments in turbulence simulations of WEST diverted plasmas. Nuclear Fusion, 2019. ⟨hal-02364554⟩ Plus de détails...
We study the effect of a diverted magnetic geometry on edge plasma turbulence, focusing on the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of filaments, also called blobs, in simulations of the WEST tokamak, featuring a primary and secondary X-point. For this purpose, in addition to classical analysis techniques, we apply here a novel fully 3D Blob Recognition And Tracking (BRAT) algorithm, allowing for the first time to resolve the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of the blobs in a turbulent 3D plasma featuring a realistic magnetic geometry. The results are tested against existing theoretical scalings of blob velocity [Myra et al, Physics of Plasmas 2006]. The complementary analysis of the 3D structure of the filaments shows how they disconnect from the divertor plate in the vicinity of the X-points, leading to a transition from a sheath-connected regime to the ideal-interchange one. Furthermore, the numerical results show non-negligible effects of the turbulent background plasma: approximately half of the detected filaments are involved in mutual interactions, eventually resulting in negative radial velocities, and a fraction of the filaments is generated by turbulence directly below the X-point.
F. Nespoli, P. Tamain, N. Fedorczak, G. Ciraolo, D. Galassi, et al.. 3D structure and dynamics of filaments in turbulence simulations of WEST diverted plasmas. Nuclear Fusion, 2019. ⟨hal-02364554⟩
G. Ciraolo, A. Thin, H. Bufferand, J. Bucalossi, N. Fedorczak, et al.. First modeling of strongly radiating WEST plasmas with SOLEDGE-EIRENE. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 20, pp.100685. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2019.100685⟩. ⟨hal-02468035⟩ Plus de détails...
We present first results of SOLEDGE-EIRENE modeling a strongly radiating plasma in the WEST tokamak. Using measurements from a reciprocating Langmuir probe we have determined the SOLEDGE input parameters, i.e. separatrix density at outboard midplane and radial transport coefficients typical of L-mode plasma. We have performed deuterium plasma simulations with presence of oxygen, injected from the core boundary into the simulation domain. The comparison between the radiated power measured from the bolometry in the divertor region and the one computed from SOLEDGE simulations seems to indicate a concentration of oxygen of about 2%. Moreover we have obtained good agreement between simulation results and experimental measurements on electron density and electron temperature profiles at the outer strike point. First qualitative analysis of spectroscopic synthetic diagnostic on D-alpha signals is also presented.
G. Ciraolo, A. Thin, H. Bufferand, J. Bucalossi, N. Fedorczak, et al.. First modeling of strongly radiating WEST plasmas with SOLEDGE-EIRENE. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 20, pp.100685. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2019.100685⟩. ⟨hal-02468035⟩
R Mao, N. Fedorczak, G. Ciraolo, H. Bufferand, Y. Marandet, et al.. Impact of alternative divertor configuration on plasma detachment: pure Deuterium simulations with SolEdge2D-EIRENE edge transport code for HL-2M scenario. Nuclear Fusion, 2019. ⟨hal-02370418⟩ Plus de détails...
The SOLEDGE-EIRENE edge plasma code provides solutions for particle & energy transport in the plasma edge within complex and realistic 2D geometries [1]. In this work, divertor detachment is simulated on the HL-2M alternative magnetic configurations in pure Deuterium plasma. Starting from typical HL-2M low single-null (SN) configuration, the snowflake plus (SF+) and snowflake minus (SF-) configurations have been investigated. Detachment of the outer target is studied in these configurations during plasma density ramps controlled by a fueling source, at constant input power and constant radial transport coefficients. Some typical characteristics of detachment, like threshold, depth and upstream window of detachment are investigated. In the three geometries, detachment onset and evolution with upstream plasma density is characterized by the gradual displacement of a radiation front from the outer target to the main X-point, as observed in experiments. It is found that, whatever the detachment in terms of particle, momentum or power dissipation, the detachment threshold is dominated primarily by the geometrical structure of divertor plate and it does not exhibit dependence on the magnetic configuration of the diverted plasma volume. In particular, the parallel connection length in the divertor is not found to affect the detachment threshold, in contrast with simple expectations from the 2-point model, but in agreement with experimental findings.
R Mao, N. Fedorczak, G. Ciraolo, H. Bufferand, Y. Marandet, et al.. Impact of alternative divertor configuration on plasma detachment: pure Deuterium simulations with SolEdge2D-EIRENE edge transport code for HL-2M scenario. Nuclear Fusion, 2019. ⟨hal-02370418⟩
S. Baschetti, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, N. Fedorczak, P. Ghendrih, et al.. A κ − ε model for plasma anomalous transport in tokamaks: closure via the scaling of the global confinement. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 19, pp.200-204. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2019.02.032⟩. ⟨hal-02177039⟩ Plus de détails...
A reduced model for radial anomalous transport of plasma in tokamaks, inspired by the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach, is presented assuming diffusion as governing mechanism. In order to self-consistently calculate transport coefficients, an empirical equation is built for the turbulent kinetic energy and the system is closed via the scaling law of global confinement. In such way the SOL width appears to recover experimental dependencies with respect to machine parameters and interestingly, when the model is implemented in a 2D transport code for a realistic study-case, mean fields retrieve some features already observed in 1st-principle turbulent codes.
S. Baschetti, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, N. Fedorczak, P. Ghendrih, et al.. A κ − ε model for plasma anomalous transport in tokamaks: closure via the scaling of the global confinement. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 19, pp.200-204. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2019.02.032⟩. ⟨hal-02177039⟩
Julien Denis, J. Bucalossi, G. Ciraolo, Etienne A Hodille, B. Pégourié, et al.. Dynamic modelling of local fuel inventory and desorption in the whole tokamak vacuum vessel for auto-consistent plasma-wall interaction simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 19, pp.550-557. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2019.03.019⟩. ⟨hal-02902060⟩ Plus de détails...
An extension of the SolEdge2D-EIRENE code package, named D-WEE, has been developed to add the dynamics of thermal desorption of hydrogen isotopes from the surface of plasma facing materials. To achieve this purpose, D-WEE models hydrogen isotopes implantation, transport and retention in those materials. Before launching auto-consistent simulation (with feedback of D-WEE on SolEdge2D-EIRENE), D-WEE has to be initialised to ensure a realistic wall behaviour in terms of dynamics (pumping or fuelling areas) and fuel content. A methodology based on modelling is introduced to perform such initialisation. A synthetic plasma pulse is built from consecutive SolEdge2D-EIRENE simulations. This synthetic pulse is used as a plasma background for the D-WEE module. A sequence of plasma pulses is simulated with D-WEE to model a tokamak operation. This simulation enables to extract at a desired time during a pulse the local fuel inventory and the local desorption flux density which could be used as initial condition for coupled plasma-wall simulations. To assess the relevance of the dynamic retention behaviour obtained in the simulation, a confrontation to post-pulse experimental pressure measurement is performed. Such confrontation reveals a qualitative agreement between the temporal pressure drop obtained in the simulation and the one observed experimentally. The simulated dynamic retention during the consecutive pulses is also studied.
Julien Denis, J. Bucalossi, G. Ciraolo, Etienne A Hodille, B. Pégourié, et al.. Dynamic modelling of local fuel inventory and desorption in the whole tokamak vacuum vessel for auto-consistent plasma-wall interaction simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 19, pp.550-557. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2019.03.019⟩. ⟨hal-02902060⟩
Giorgio Giorgiani, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, Eric Serre, P. Tamain. A magnetic-field independent approach for strongly anisotropic equations arising plasma-edge transport simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 19, pp.340-345. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2019.03.002⟩. ⟨hal-02177048⟩ Plus de détails...
A [Summary] The control of the power exhaust in tokamaks is still an open issue for the future fusion operations. The heat loads on divertor and limiter PFCs is largely determined by the physics of the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL), and therefore it depends mainly on the geometry of the magnetic surfaces and on the geometry of wall components. A better characterization of the heat exhaust mechanisms requires therefore to improve the capabilities of the transport codes in terms of geometrical description of the wall components and in terms of the description of the magnetic geometry. The possibility of dealing with evolving magnetic configurations becomes also critical: during start-up or control operations, for example, the evolution of particles and heat fluxes is little known, although being critical for the safety of the machine. Hence, among the new capabilities of future transport codes will be the possibility of accurately describe the reactor chamber, and the flexibility with respect the magnetic configuration. In particular, avoiding expensive re-meshing of the computational domain in case of evolving equilibrium is mandatory. In order to fulfill these requirements, in this work a fluid solver based on non-aligned discretization is used to solve the plasma-edge transport equations for density, momentum and energies. Preliminary tests on non-structured meshes and realistic geometries/physical parameters show the pertinency of this novel approach.
Giorgio Giorgiani, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, Eric Serre, P. Tamain. A magnetic-field independent approach for strongly anisotropic equations arising plasma-edge transport simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 19, pp.340-345. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2019.03.002⟩. ⟨hal-02177048⟩
Davide Galassi, Guido Ciraolo, Patrick Tamain, Hugo Bufferand, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. Tokamak Edge Plasma Turbulence Interaction with Magnetic X-Point in 3D Global Simulations. Fluids, 2019, 4 (1), pp.50. ⟨10.3390/fluids4010050⟩. ⟨hal-02176982⟩ Plus de détails...
Turbulence in the edge plasma of a tokamak is a key actor in the determination of the confinement properties. The divertor configuration seems to be beneficial for confinement, suggesting an effect on turbulence of the particular magnetic geometry introduced by the X-point. Simulations with the 3D fluid turbulence code TOKAM3X are performed here to evaluate the impact of a diverted configuration on turbulence in the edge plasma, in an isothermal framework. The presence of the X-point is found, locally, to affect both the shape of turbulent structures and the amplitude of fluctuations, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental observations. In particular, a quiescent region is found in the divertor scrape-off layer (SOL), close to the separatrix. Globally, a mild transport barrier spontaneously forms in the closed flux surfaces region near the separatrix, differently from simulations in limiter configuration. The effect of turbulence-driven Reynolds stress on the formation of the barrier is found to be weak by dedicated simulations, while turbulence damping around the X-point seems to globally reduce turbulent transport on the whole flux surface. The magnetic shear is thus pointed out as a possible element that contributes to the formation of edge transport barriers.
Davide Galassi, Guido Ciraolo, Patrick Tamain, Hugo Bufferand, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. Tokamak Edge Plasma Turbulence Interaction with Magnetic X-Point in 3D Global Simulations. Fluids, 2019, 4 (1), pp.50. ⟨10.3390/fluids4010050⟩. ⟨hal-02176982⟩
Marco Martins Afonso, Philippe Meliga, Eric Serre. Optimal Transient Growth in an Incompressible Flow past a Backward-Slanted Step. Fluids, 2019, 4 (1), pp.33. ⟨10.3390/fluids4010033⟩. ⟨hal-02176963⟩ Plus de détails...
With the aim of providing a first step in the quest for a reduction of the aerodynamic drag on the rear-end of a car, we study the phenomena of separation and reattachment of an incompressible flow by focusing on a specific aerodynamic geometry, namely a backward-slanted step at 25 circle of inclination. The ensuing recirculation bubble provides the basis for an analytical and numerical investigation of streamwise-streak generation, lift-up effect, and turbulent-wake and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. A linear stability analysis is performed, and an optimal control problem with a steady volumic forcing is tackled by means of a variational formulation, adjoint methods, penalization schemes, and an orthogonalization algorithm. Dealing with the transient growth of spanwise-periodic perturbations, and inspired by the need of physically-realizable disturbances, we finally provide a procedure attaining a kinetic-energy maximal gain on the order of 106, with respect to the power introduced by the external forcing.
Marco Martins Afonso, Philippe Meliga, Eric Serre. Optimal Transient Growth in an Incompressible Flow past a Backward-Slanted Step. Fluids, 2019, 4 (1), pp.33. ⟨10.3390/fluids4010033⟩. ⟨hal-02176963⟩
D.M. Fan, Y. Marandet, P. Tamain, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Effect of turbulent fluctuations on neutral particles transport with the TOKAM3X-EIRENE turbulence code. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 18, pp.105-110. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2018.12.011⟩. ⟨hal-02176529⟩ Plus de détails...
The effect of turbulent fluctuations on the transport of neutral particles (atoms, molecules) in tokamak plasmas is investigated with the 3D global turbulence code TOKAM3X-EIRENE in limiter geometry. The statistical properties of turbulent fields relevant to this work are discussed, including the recycling flux. The neutral particle transport is recalculated on the mean field plasma, and compared to the mean neutral particle density/flows obtained from the turbulent simulation, so as to assess the effects of the fluctuations, in particular on the ionization balance. The latter effects are remarkably modest in the simulation presented here, but are expected to become more and more pronounced as the high recycling regime is approached, in particular because the plasma temperature becomes low enough so that ionization is strongly non-linear. However, the turbulent fluctuations in the SOL do have a substantial effect on the neutral densities on the low field side of the limiter, including in the confined plasma. These effects are traced back to non-linearities in the plasma flux at the wall, and the fluctuations in the latter are identified as an important contributor both to neutral particle density fluctuations and to deviations from mean neutral particle density/flows in the turbulent simulation with respect to the same quantities recalculated on the mean plasma fields.
D.M. Fan, Y. Marandet, P. Tamain, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Effect of turbulent fluctuations on neutral particles transport with the TOKAM3X-EIRENE turbulence code. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 18, pp.105-110. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2018.12.011⟩. ⟨hal-02176529⟩
J. Soler, F. Schwander, G Giorgiani, J Liandrat, P Tamain, et al.. A new conservative finite-difference scheme for anisotropic elliptic problems in bounded domain A new conservative finite-difference scheme for anisotropic elliptic problems in bounded domain. Journal of Computational Physics, 2019, ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2019.109093⟩. ⟨hal-02477007⟩ Plus de détails...
Highly anisotropic elliptic problems occur in many physical models that need to be solved numerically. A direction of dominant diffusion is thus introduced (called here parallel direction) along which the diffusion coefficient is several orders larger of magnitude than in the perpendicular one. In this case, finite-difference methods based on misaligned stencils are generally not designed to provide an optimal discretization, and may lead the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. This paper proposes an original scheme using non-aligned Cartesian grids and interpolations aligned along a parallel diffusion direction. Here, this direction is assumed to be supported by a divergence-free vector field which never vanishesand it is supposed to be stationary in time. Based on the Support Operator Method (SOM), the self-adjointness property of the parallel diffusion operator is maintained on the discrete level. Compared with existing methods, the present formulation further guarantees the conservativity of the fluxes in both parallel and perpendicular directions. In addition, when the flow intercepts a boundary in the parallel direction, an accurate discretization of the boundary condition is presented that avoids the uncertainties of extrapolated far ghost points classicaly used and ensures a better accuracy of the solution. Numerical tests based on manufactured solutions show the method is able to provide accurate and stable numerical approximations in both periodic and bounded domains with a drastically reduced number of degrees of freedom with respect to non-aligned approaches.
J. Soler, F. Schwander, G Giorgiani, J Liandrat, P Tamain, et al.. A new conservative finite-difference scheme for anisotropic elliptic problems in bounded domain A new conservative finite-difference scheme for anisotropic elliptic problems in bounded domain. Journal of Computational Physics, 2019, ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2019.109093⟩. ⟨hal-02477007⟩
H. Bufferand, P. Tamain, S. Baschetti, J. Bucalossi, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Three-dimensional modelling of edge multi-component plasma taking into account realistic wall geometry. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 18, pp.82-86. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2018.11.025⟩. ⟨hal-02176521⟩ Plus de détails...
H. Bufferand, P. Tamain, S. Baschetti, J. Bucalossi, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Three-dimensional modelling of edge multi-component plasma taking into account realistic wall geometry. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 18, pp.82-86. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2018.11.025⟩. ⟨hal-02176521⟩
F. Nespoli, H. Bufferand, M. Valentinuzzi, N. Fedorczak, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Application of a two-fluid two-point model to SolEdge2D-EIRENE simulations of TCV H-mode plasma. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 18, pp.29-34. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2018.11.026⟩. ⟨hal-02176505⟩ Plus de détails...
The edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma of the inter-ELM phase of an H-mode discharge from the TCV tokamak is modeled with the transport code SolEdge2D-EIRENE (Bufferand et al. Nuclear Fusion 55 (2015)). The numerical simulations, in presence and in absence of C impurities sputtered from the first wall, are presented and compared with the experiments, finding an overall good agreement. The application of the standard two-point model to the simulation results leads to an apparent momentum gain along the divertor leg. A two-fluid two-point model featuring thermally decoupled ions and electrons is introduced and applied to the simulation results, overcoming this apparent discrepancy.
F. Nespoli, H. Bufferand, M. Valentinuzzi, N. Fedorczak, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Application of a two-fluid two-point model to SolEdge2D-EIRENE simulations of TCV H-mode plasma. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2019, 18, pp.29-34. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2018.11.026⟩. ⟨hal-02176505⟩
Giorgio Giorgiani, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Philippe Ghendrih, Frédéric Schwander, et al.. A hybrid discontinuous Galerkin method for tokamak edge plasma simulations in global realistic geometry. Journal of Computational Physics, 2018, 374, pp.515-532. ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2018.07.028⟩. ⟨hal-02114246⟩ Plus de détails...
Progressing toward more accurate and more efficient numerical codes forthe simulation of transport and turbulence in the edge plasma of tokamaks,we propose in this work a new hybrid discontinous Galerkin solver. Basedon 2D advection-diffusion conservation equations for the ion density and theparticle flux in the direction parallel to the magnetic field, the code simulatesplasma transport in the poloidal section of tokamaks, including the open fieldlines of the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) and the closed field lines of the core re-gion. The spatial discretization is based on a high-order hybrid DG schemeon unstructured meshes, which provides an arbitrary high-order accuracywhile reducing considerably the number of coupled degrees of freedom witha local condensation process. A discontinuity sensor is employed to identifycritical elements and regularize the solution with the introduction of artificialdiffusion. Based on a finite-element discretization, not constrained by a flux-aligned mesh, the code is able to describe plasma facing components of anycomplex shape using Bohm boundary conditions and to simulate the plasmain versatile magnetic equilibria, possibly extended up to the center. Nu-merical tests using a manufacturated solution show appropriate convergenceorders when varying independently the number of elements or the degree ofinterpolation. Validation is performed by benchmarking the code with thewell-referenced edge transport code SOLEDGE2D (Bufferandet al.2013,2015 [1, 2]) in the WEST geometry. Final numerical experiments show thecapacity of the code to deal with low-diffusion solutions.
Giorgio Giorgiani, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Philippe Ghendrih, Frédéric Schwander, et al.. A hybrid discontinuous Galerkin method for tokamak edge plasma simulations in global realistic geometry. Journal of Computational Physics, 2018, 374, pp.515-532. ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2018.07.028⟩. ⟨hal-02114246⟩
Philippe Ghendrih, Y. Asahi, E. Caschera, Guilhem Dif-Pradalier, P. Peter Donnel, et al.. Generation and dynamics of SOL corrugated profiles. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2018, 1125, pp.012011. ⟨10.1088/1742-6596/1125/1/012011⟩. ⟨hal-02196677⟩ Plus de détails...
The staircase transport regime reported in kinetic simulations of plasma turbulent transport in magnetic confinement is recovered with a simple 2D fluid model allowing for reduced damping of the zonal flows. Some of the complex dynamics of the kinetic zonation regime are recovered but the pattern of the corrugation appears to be sinusoidal with a characteristic scale comparable to that of turbulence modes with largest spectral energy, in contrast to regimes observed in global and flux-driven kinetic simulations. Enhanced zonal flows govern both an overall reduction of the SOL width and a gradual steepening of the gradients with distance to the separatrix.
Philippe Ghendrih, Y. Asahi, E. Caschera, Guilhem Dif-Pradalier, P. Peter Donnel, et al.. Generation and dynamics of SOL corrugated profiles. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2018, 1125, pp.012011. ⟨10.1088/1742-6596/1125/1/012011⟩. ⟨hal-02196677⟩
Eunok Yim, J.-M. Chomaz, Denis Martinand, Eric Serre. Transition to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary layer of a rotor–stator cavity. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2018, 848, pp.631 - 647. ⟨10.1017/jfm.2018.239⟩. ⟨hal-02116221⟩ Plus de détails...
The transition to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary layer is investigated in a closed cylindrical rotor-stator cavity via direct numerical simulation (DNS) and linear stability analysis (LSA). The mean flow in the rotor boundary layer is qualitatively similar to the von Karman self-similarity solution. The mean velocity profiles, however, slightly depart from theory as the rotor edge is approached. Shear and centrifugal effects lead to a locally more unstable mean flow than the self-similarity solution, which acts as a strong source of perturbations. Fluctuations start rising there, as the Reynolds number is increased, eventually leading to an edge-driven global mode, characterized by spiral arms rotating counter-clockwise with respect to the rotor. At larger Reynolds numbers, fluctuations form a steep front, no longer driven by the edge, and followed downstream by a saturated spiral wave, eventually leading to incipient turbulence. Numerical results show that this front results from the superposition of several elephant front-forming global modes, corresponding to unstable azimuthal wavenumbers m, in the range m is an element of [32, 78 ]. The spatial growth along the radial direction of the energy of these fluctuations is quantitatively similar to that observed experimentally. This superposition of elephant modes could thus provide an explanation for the discrepancy observed in the single disk configuration, between the corresponding spatial growth rates values measured by experiments on the one hand, and predicted by LSA and DNS performed in an azimuthal sector, on the other hand.
Eunok Yim, J.-M. Chomaz, Denis Martinand, Eric Serre. Transition to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary layer of a rotor–stator cavity. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2018, 848, pp.631 - 647. ⟨10.1017/jfm.2018.239⟩. ⟨hal-02116221⟩
L Valade, A. Ekedahl, P Ghendrih, Y. Sarazin, Y. Asahi, et al.. Electron burst driven by near electric field effects of lower-hybrid launchers. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.465-470. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700156⟩. ⟨hal-02196679⟩ Plus de détails...
Hot spot generation by Lower Hybrid (LH) launchers is found to be governed by a resonance in the plasma electric field response to the external drive. The kinetic analysis in 1D-1V in the parallel direction allows one to compute the amplification effect for small amplitude of the external drive. The resonant Lorentzian response distorts the distribution function with an island structure in the suprathermal part at the phase velocity of the external electrostatic drive. The non-linear features enhance the plasma response driving overlap effects between multiple waves at rather low amplitude. The onset of a plateau in the distribution function with extent up to one thermal velocity is already obtained when the standard overlap condition is achieved. The sensitivity of the resonance to plasma parameters and large variation of the amplification magnitude can compensate the fast radial decay of 1
L Valade, A. Ekedahl, P Ghendrih, Y. Sarazin, Y. Asahi, et al.. Electron burst driven by near electric field effects of lower-hybrid launchers. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.465-470. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700156⟩. ⟨hal-02196679⟩
Laurent Valade, Annika Ekedahl, Philippe Ghendrih, Yanick Sarazin, Yuuichi Asahi, et al.. Electron burst driven by near electric field effects of lower-hybrid launchers. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.465-470. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700156⟩. ⟨hal-02116142⟩ Plus de détails...
Hotspot generation by lower-hybrid (LH) launchers is found to be governed by a resonance in the plasma electric field response to the external drive. The kinetic analysis in 1D-1V in the parallel direction allows one to compute the amplification effect for small amplitude of the external drive. The resonant Lorentzian response distorts the distribution function. An island structure is formed in the suprathermal part at the phase velocity of the external electrostatic drive. The non-linear features enhance the plasma response, driving overlap effects between multiple waves at rather low amplitude. The onset of a plateau in the distribution function, with extent reaching one thermal velocity, is already obtained when the standard overlap condition is achieved. The sensitivity of the resonance to plasma parameters and large variation of the amplification magnitude can compensate the fast radial decay of the small-scale features generated by the LH launchers, which are responsible for the interaction with the cold electrons. This mechanism can trigger hotspot generation further in the scrape-off layer than otherwise expected.
Laurent Valade, Annika Ekedahl, Philippe Ghendrih, Yanick Sarazin, Yuuichi Asahi, et al.. Electron burst driven by near electric field effects of lower-hybrid launchers. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.465-470. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700156⟩. ⟨hal-02116142⟩
Guido Ciraolo, Hugo Bufferand, Pierfrancesco Di Cintio, Philippe Ghendrih, Stefano Lepri, et al.. Fluid and kinetic modelling for non-local heat transport in magnetic fusion devices. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.457-464. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700222⟩. ⟨hal-02113953⟩ Plus de détails...
In order to improve the presently used ad hoc flux limiter treatment of parallel heat flux transport in edge plasma fluid codes, here, we consider a generalized version of the Fourier law implementing a non-local kernel for the heat flux computation. The Bohm boundary condition at the wall is recovered, introducing a volumetric loss term representing the contribution of suprathermal particles to the energy out flux. As expected, this contribution is negligible in the strongly collisional regime, while it becomes more and more dominant for marginally and low-collisional regimes. In the second part of the paper, we consider a kinetic approach where collisions are considered using the multi-particle collision algorithm. Kinetic simulation results at medium and low collisionality are also reported.
Guido Ciraolo, Hugo Bufferand, Pierfrancesco Di Cintio, Philippe Ghendrih, Stefano Lepri, et al.. Fluid and kinetic modelling for non-local heat transport in magnetic fusion devices. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.457-464. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700222⟩. ⟨hal-02113953⟩
Serafina Baschetti, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Nicolas Fedorczak, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. Optimization of turbulence reduced model free parameters based on L-mode experiments and 2D transport simulations. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.511-517. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700163⟩. ⟨hal-02111708⟩ Plus de détails...
In this paper, a κ−ϵ transport model is presented as a turbulence reduction tool for a typical ohmic L‐mode discharge plasma in a divertor‐configurated tokamak. Taking a Tokamak à configuration variable (TCV) study case, a feedback loop procedure is performed using the SolEdge2D code to acquire plasma diffusivity at the outer mid‐plane. The κ−ϵ model is calibrated through its free parameters with the aim of recovering the diffusivity calculated in the feedback procedure. Finally, it is shown that the model can self‐consistently calculate diffusivity in the whole domain, recovering the poloidal asymmetries due to interchange instabilities.
Serafina Baschetti, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Nicolas Fedorczak, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. Optimization of turbulence reduced model free parameters based on L-mode experiments and 2D transport simulations. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.511-517. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700163⟩. ⟨hal-02111708⟩
Dongmei Fan, Yannick Marandet, Patrick Tamain, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, et al.. Self-consistent coupling of the three-dimensional fluid turbulence code TOKAM3X and the kinetic neutrals code EIRENE. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.490-496. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700216⟩. ⟨hal-02114027⟩ Plus de détails...
The three-dimensional (3D) turbulence code TOKAM3X-EIRENE, coupling the 3D non-isothermal version of TOKAM3X to the EIRENE Monte Carlo solver has been developed with the ability to simulate self-consistently the interactions between large-scale flows and turbulence both in limited and diverted plasmas, including recycling. This is especially important for diverted plasmas, where neutrals play a key role and where the recycling source is strongly dominant. The code package relies on the same interface as the Soledge2D-EIRENE code, which retains state-of-the-art plasma-wall interaction, as well as atomic and molecular physics. In this paper, we present the first results obtained in WEST divertor geometry, in laminar mode, with the aim of verifying the new code package. The divertor density regimes are recovered, and the code results are shown to be consistent with the results of the two-point model, thus opening the way for turbulent simulations.
Dongmei Fan, Yannick Marandet, Patrick Tamain, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, et al.. Self-consistent coupling of the three-dimensional fluid turbulence code TOKAM3X and the kinetic neutrals code EIRENE. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.490-496. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700216⟩. ⟨hal-02114027⟩
Matteo Valentinuzzi, Giorgio Giorgiani, Yannick Marandet, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, et al.. Fluid description of neutral particles in divertor regimes in WEST. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.710-717. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700211⟩. ⟨hal-02116176⟩ Plus de détails...
A new neutral fluid code has been developed as a necessary step towards a hybrid fluid/kinetic neutral model, to be used in ITER or DEMO simulations, where part of the divertor will be very collisional for neutrals. The neutral fluid code, which is able to handle complex geometries in view of the coupling to Soledge2D, is tested on plasma backgrounds obtained by Soledge2D‐Eirene in WEST geometry, for different divertor regimes, and is found to be in fair agreement with the kinetic Monte Carlo solver Eirene. The differences are due to the simplifications introduced in the fluid model and to the fact that a fluid description is not fully valid in these cases.
Matteo Valentinuzzi, Giorgio Giorgiani, Yannick Marandet, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, et al.. Fluid description of neutral particles in divertor regimes in WEST. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.710-717. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700211⟩. ⟨hal-02116176⟩
Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Pierfrancesco Di Cintio, Nicolas Fedorczak, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. Non-local heat flux application for scrape-off layer plasma. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.563-569. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700162⟩. ⟨hal-02112673⟩ Plus de détails...
The non-local expression proposed by Luciani-Mora-Virmont is implemented in a one dimensional fluid model for the scrape-off layer. Analytical solutions for heat equation are discussed as well as the impact of sheath boundary conditions on the continuity of the temperature profile. The non-local heat flux is compared to the Spitzer-Härm heat flux for different collisionality. KEYWORDS heat conduction, non-local transport, plasma physics 1 INTRODUCTION At the entrance of the scrape-off layer, the plasma collisionality í µí¼ ⋆ defined as the ratio between the field line length and collision mean free path is found to be of order unity. Despite this low collisionality, the tokamak edge plasma modelling relies mostly on the fluid approach and collisional closures that are theoretically only valid at high collisionality. Departure between Braginskii fluid description and kinetic modelling has been highlighted, particularly an underestimation of temperature gradient by the fluid approach. [1] Several kinetic corrections have been proposed to improve the plasma description at intermediate collisionality. [2-5] In this contribution, we investigate kinetic corrections to the local Spitzer-Härm (Braginskii) closure for the heat flux; more precisely, we focus on applying the non-local expression for the heat flux proposed by Luciani-Mora-Virmont [6] to scrape-off layer physics. In particular, we adapt boundary conditions and implement the non-local expression into a 1D hydrodynamic model for the scrape-off layer.
Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Pierfrancesco Di Cintio, Nicolas Fedorczak, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. Non-local heat flux application for scrape-off layer plasma. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.563-569. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700162⟩. ⟨hal-02112673⟩
Nicolas Nace, Patrick Tamain, Camille Baudoin, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, et al.. Impact of safety factor and magnetic shear profiles on edge turbulence in circular limited geometry. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.497-504. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700174⟩. ⟨hal-02115405⟩ Plus de détails...
The impact of magnetic configuration on edge turbulence properties in circular limiter geometry is investigated using TOKAM3X, a three-dimensional (3D), first-principle, fluid code for edge plasma. The theoretical spatial tilting of magnetic shear on turbulence fluctuations is recovered. Magnetic shear is found to generate or enhance poloidal high/low field sides (HFS/LFS) and up/down asymmetries. A simulation mimicking the impact of an X-point on circular limiter geometry leads to the formation of two transport barriers that are stable in time, thus leading to the improvement of core particle confinement and to reduction of radial turbulent transport. The magnetic shear, which also strongly enhances the E × B shear, is responsible for the barrier formation.
Nicolas Nace, Patrick Tamain, Camille Baudoin, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, et al.. Impact of safety factor and magnetic shear profiles on edge turbulence in circular limited geometry. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2018, 58 (6-8), pp.497-504. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201700174⟩. ⟨hal-02115405⟩
Eunok Yim, J.-M Chomaz, Denis Martinand, Eric Serre. Transition to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary layer of a rotor-stator cavity. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2018, 836, pp.43-71. ⟨10.1017/jfm.2017.771⟩. ⟨hal-02121890⟩ Plus de détails...
This paper proposes a resolution to the conundrum of the roles of convective and absolute instability in transition of the rotating-disk boundary layer. It also draws some comparison with swept-wing flows. Direct numerical simulations based on the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations of the flow over the surface of a rotating disk with modelled roughness elements are presented. The rotating-disk flow has been of particular interest for stability and transition research since the work by Lingwood (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 299, 1995, pp. 17–33) where an absolute instability was found. Here stationary disturbances develop from roughness elements on the disk and are followed from the linear stage, growing to saturation and finally transitioning to turbulence. Several simulations are presented with varying disturbance amplitudes. The lowest amplitude corresponds approximately to the experiment by Imayama et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 745, 2014a, pp. 132–163). For all cases, the primary instability was found to be convectively unstable, and secondary modes were found to be triggered spontaneously while the flow was developing. The secondary modes further stayed within the domain, and an explanation for this is a proposed globally unstable secondary instability. For the low-amplitude roughness cases, the disturbances propagate beyond the threshold for secondary global instability before becoming turbulent, and for the high-amplitude roughness cases the transition scenario gives a turbulent flow directly at the critical Reynolds number for the secondary global instability. These results correspond to the theory of Pier (J. Engng Maths, vol. 57, 2007, pp. 237–251) predicting a secondary absolute instability. In our simulations, high temporal frequencies were found to grow with a large amplification rate where the secondary global instability occurred. For smaller radial positions, low-frequency secondary instabilities were observed, tripped by the global instability. The transition to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary layer is investigated in a closed cylindrical rotor-stator cavity via direct numerical simulation (DNS) and linear stability analysis (LSA). The mean flow in the rotor boundary layer is qualitatively similar to the von Kármán self-similarity solution. The mean velocity profiles, however, slightly depart from theory as the rotor edge is approached. Shear and centrifugal effects lead to a locally more unstable mean flow than the self-similarity solution, which acts as a strong source of perturbations. Fluctuations start rising there, as the Reynolds number is increased, eventually leading to an edge-driven global mode, characterized by spiral arms rotating counterclockwise with respect to the rotor. At larger Reynolds numbers, fluctuations form a steep front, no longer driven by the edge, and followed downstream by a saturated spiral wave, eventually leading to incipient turbulence. Numerical results show that this front results from the superposition of several elephant front-forming global modes, corresponding to unstable azimuthal wavenumbers m, in the range m ∈ [32, 78]. The spatial growth along the radial direction of the energy of these fluctuations is quantitatively similar to that observed experimentally. This superposition of elephant modes could thus provide an explanation for the discrepancy observed in the single disk configuration, between the corresponding spatial growth rates values measured by experiments on the one hand, and predicted by LSA and DNS performed in an azimuthal sector, on the other hand.
Eunok Yim, J.-M Chomaz, Denis Martinand, Eric Serre. Transition to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary layer of a rotor-stator cavity. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2018, 836, pp.43-71. ⟨10.1017/jfm.2017.771⟩. ⟨hal-02121890⟩
Giorgio Giorgiani, Hervé Guillard, Boniface Nkonga, Eric Serre. A stabilized Powell–Sabin finite-element method for the 2D Euler equations in supersonic regime. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2018, 340, pp.216-235. ⟨10.1016/j.cma.2018.05.032⟩. ⟨hal-01865708⟩ Plus de détails...
In this paper a Powell–Sabin finite-element (PS-FEM) scheme is presented for the solution of the 2D Euler equations in supersonic regime. The spatial discretization is based on PS splines, that are piecewise quadratic polynomials with a global continuity, defined on conforming triangulations. Some geometrical issues related to the practical construction of the PS elements are discussed, in particular, the generation of the control triangles and the imposition of the boundary conditions. A stabilized formulation is considered, and a novel shock-capturing technique in the context of continuous finite-elements is proposed to reduce oscillations around the discontinuity, and compared with the classical technique proposed by Tezduyar and Senga (2006). The code is verified using manufactured solutions and validated using two challenging numerical examples, which allows to evaluate the performance of the PS discretization in capturing the shocks.
Giorgio Giorgiani, Hervé Guillard, Boniface Nkonga, Eric Serre. A stabilized Powell–Sabin finite-element method for the 2D Euler equations in supersonic regime. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2018, 340, pp.216-235. ⟨10.1016/j.cma.2018.05.032⟩. ⟨hal-01865708⟩
Journal: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
Dominique Morvan. Comprendre et prévenir les feux de végétation. Université Grenoble Alpes. Encyclopédie de l’Environnement, , 2018. ⟨hal-01678486⟩ Plus de détails...
H. Riahi, Marcello Meldi, Julien Favier, Eric Serre, Eric Goncalves da Silva. A pressure-corrected Immersed Boundary Method for the numerical simulation of compressible flows. Journal of Computational Physics, 2018, 374, pp.361-383. ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2018.07.033⟩. ⟨hal-01859760⟩ Plus de détails...
The development of an improved new IBM method is proposed in the present article. This method roots in efficient proposals developed for the simulation of incompressible flows, and it is expanded for compressible configurations. The main feature of this model is the integration of a pressure-based correction of the IBM forcing which is analytically derived from the set of dynamic equations. The resulting IBM method has been integrated in various flow solvers available in the CFD platform OpenFOAM. A rigorous validation has been performed considering different test cases of increasing complexity. The results have been compared with a large number of references available in the literature of experimental and numerical nature. This analysis highlights numerous favorable characteristics of the IBM method, such as precision, flexibility and computational cost efficiency.
H. Riahi, Marcello Meldi, Julien Favier, Eric Serre, Eric Goncalves da Silva. A pressure-corrected Immersed Boundary Method for the numerical simulation of compressible flows. Journal of Computational Physics, 2018, 374, pp.361-383. ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2018.07.033⟩. ⟨hal-01859760⟩
Thomas Cartier-Michaud, Philippe Ghendrih, Guilhem Dif-Pradalier, Xavier Garbet, Virginie Grandgirard, et al.. Verification of turbulent simulations using PoPe: quantifying model precision and numerical error with data mining of simulation output. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2018, 1125, pp.012005. ⟨10.1088/1742-6596/1125/1/012005⟩. ⟨hal-02196674⟩ Plus de détails...
Verification of a 1D-1V kinetic code with the PoPe method [1] is presented. Investigation of the impact of reducing the precision of the numerical scheme is analysed by following 3 indicators of the physics solved by the code, namely the plasma response to an external high frequency electric field wave. The response of the distribution function in the vicinity of the particle-wave resonance is found to be most sensitive to the resolution. Consistently, a rapid growth of the error indicator determined with PoPe is observed. However, no critical value of this indicator allowing us to retain the physics in a situation of degraded precision could be observed. The response of the amplitude of the electric potential fluctuations is characterised by a transient growth followed by a plateau. It is found that the loss of this plateau is governed by the resolution in v-space, but due to the generation of a symmetry in the problem rather than to errors in the numerical scheme. The analysis of the transient indicates that the growth rate of the amplitude of the electric potential is very robust down to very low resolution, step in velocity of 2 thermal velocities. However, a transition prior to this resolution, with step 0.5 thermal velocity, can be identified corresponding to a PoPe indicator of order zero, namely for errors of order 100 %.
Thomas Cartier-Michaud, Philippe Ghendrih, Guilhem Dif-Pradalier, Xavier Garbet, Virginie Grandgirard, et al.. Verification of turbulent simulations using PoPe: quantifying model precision and numerical error with data mining of simulation output. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2018, 1125, pp.012005. ⟨10.1088/1742-6596/1125/1/012005⟩. ⟨hal-02196674⟩
Eunok Yim, J.-M Chomaz, D Martinand, E Serre. Transition to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary layer of a rotor-stator cavity. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2018. ⟨hal-02927579⟩ Plus de détails...
The transition to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary layer is investigated in a closed cylindrical rotor-stator cavity via direct numerical simulation (DNS) and linear stability analysis (LSA). The mean flow in the rotor boundary layer is qualitatively similar to the von Kármán self-similarity solution. The mean velocity profiles, however, slightly depart from theory as the rotor edge is approached. Shear and centrifugal effects lead to a locally more unstable mean flow than the self-similarity solution, which acts as a strong source of perturbations. Fluctuations start rising there, as the Reynolds number is increased, eventually leading to an edge-driven global mode, characterized by spiral arms rotating counterclockwise with respect to the rotor. At larger Reynolds numbers, fluctuations form a steep front, no longer driven by the edge, and followed downstream by a saturated spiral wave, eventually leading to incipient turbulence. Numerical results show that this front results from the superposition of several elephant front-forming global modes, corresponding to unstable azimuthal wavenumbers m, in the range m ∈ [32, 78]. The spatial growth along the radial direction of the energy of these fluctuations is quantitatively similar to that observed experimentally. This superposition of elephant-modes could thus provide an explanation for the discrepancy observed in the single disk configuration, between the corresponding spatial growth rates values measured by experiments on the one hand, and predicted by LSA and DNS performed in an azimuthal sector, on the other hand.
Eunok Yim, J.-M Chomaz, D Martinand, E Serre. Transition to turbulence in the rotating disk boundary layer of a rotor-stator cavity. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2018. ⟨hal-02927579⟩
Denis Martinand, Eric Serre, Richard M. Lueptow. Linear and weakly nonlinear analyses of cylindrical Couette flow with axial and radial flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2017, 824, pp.438 - 476. ⟨10.1017/jfm.2017.351⟩. ⟨hal-01592948⟩ Plus de détails...
Extending previous linear stability analyses of the instabilities developing in permeable Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flows where axial and radial throughflows are superimposed on the usual Taylor-Couette flow, we further examine the linear behaviour and expand the analysis to consider the weakly nonlinear behaviour of convective-type instabilities by means of the derivation of the fifth-order amplitude equation together with direct numerical simulations. Special attention is paid to the influence of the radius ratio eta = r(in)/r(out), and particularly to wide gaps (small eta) and how they magnify the effects of the radial flow. The instabilities take the form of pairs of counter-rotating toroidal vortices superseded by helical ones as the axial flow is increased. Increasing the radial inflow draws these vortices near the inner cylinder, where they shrink relative to the annular gap, when this gap is wide. Strong axial and radial flows in a narrow annular gap lead to a very large azimuthal wavenumber with steeply sloped helical vortices. Strong radial outflow in a wide annular gap results in very large helical vortices. The analytical and numerical saturated vortices match quite well. In addition, radial inflows or outflows can turn the usually supercritical bifurcation from laminar to vortical flow into a subcritical one. The radial flow above which this change occurs decreases as the radius ratio eta decreases. A practical motivation for this weakly nonlinear analysis is found in modelling dynamic filtration devices, which rely on vortical instabilities to reduce the processes of accumulation on their membranes.
Denis Martinand, Eric Serre, Richard M. Lueptow. Linear and weakly nonlinear analyses of cylindrical Couette flow with axial and radial flows. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 2017, 824, pp.438 - 476. ⟨10.1017/jfm.2017.351⟩. ⟨hal-01592948⟩
P. Tamain, C. Colin, L. Colas, C. Baudoin, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Numerical analysis of the impact of an RF sheath on the Scrape-Off Layer in 2D and 3D turbulence simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.1171 - 1177. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2016.12.022⟩. ⟨hal-01702267⟩ Plus de détails...
Motivated by Radio Frequency (RF) heating studies, the response of the plasma of tokamaks to the presence of a locally polarized limiter is studied. In a first part, we use the TOKAM3X 3D global edge turbulence code to analyse the impact of such biasing in a realistic geometry. Key features of experimental observations are qualitatively recovered, especially the extension of a potential and density perturbation on long, but finite, distances along connected field lines. The perturbation is also found to extend in the transverse direction. Both observations demonstrate the influence of perpendicular current loops on the plasma confirming the need for an accurate description in reduced models. In a second part, we use the TOKAM2D slab turbulence code to determine the validity of using a transverse Ohm's law for this purpose. Results indicate that a local Ohm's law with a constant and uniform perpendicular resistivity appears at least as an oversimplified description of perpendicular charge transport in a turbulent Scrape-Off Layer.
P. Tamain, C. Colin, L. Colas, C. Baudoin, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Numerical analysis of the impact of an RF sheath on the Scrape-Off Layer in 2D and 3D turbulence simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.1171 - 1177. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2016.12.022⟩. ⟨hal-01702267⟩
W.A. Gracias, P. Tamain, Eric Serre, R.A. Pitts, L. Garcia. The impact of magnetic shear on the dynamics of a seeded 3D filament in slab geometry. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.798 - 807. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2017.02.022⟩. ⟨hal-01702187⟩ Plus de détails...
Seeded filament simulations are used to study blob dynamics with the state-of-the-art TOKAM3X fluid code in the scrape-off layer (SOL) using a slab geometry. The filamentary dynamics recovered with the code are compared with previously predicted analytical blob velocity scalings while also studying the effect of field line pitch angle on these dynamics and are found to be similar. The effect of changing magnetic topology on filamentary motion is also investigated. Magnetic shear is introduced in the model by the sudden and localised variation of field line pitch angle for a narrow radially located region constituting effectively a shearing zone. Three such shear zones are tested to see how they affect filament motion. Filaments are initialised radially upstream from the shear zone and recorded as they convect towards the far-SOL side. The lowest intensity shear zone allows many of the higher amplitude filaments to pass through after dampening them. On the other hand, the highest intensity shear zones prevent all filaments from progressing to the wall beyond the shear zone and, in certain cases for high density amplitude filaments, is able to generate a new filament downstream from the shear zone.
W.A. Gracias, P. Tamain, Eric Serre, R.A. Pitts, L. Garcia. The impact of magnetic shear on the dynamics of a seeded 3D filament in slab geometry. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.798 - 807. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2017.02.022⟩. ⟨hal-01702187⟩
Y. Marandet, H. Bufferand, N. Nace, M. Valentinuzzi, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Towards a consistent modelling of plasma edge turbulence in mean field transport codes: Focus on sputtering and plasma fluctuations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.931 - 934. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2017.02.007⟩. ⟨hal-01702229⟩ Plus de détails...
Transport codes are the main workhorses for global edge studies and modern divertor design. These tools do not resolve turbulent fluctuations responsible for the bulk of cross-field transport in the Scrape-off Layer (SOL), and solve mean field equations instead. Turbulent fluxes are modelled by diffusive transport along the gradients of the mean fields. Improvements of this description, on the basis of approaches developed in computational fluid dynamics are discussed, broadening the outlook given in Bufferand et al. (2016) [10]. This contribution focuses on additional closure issues related to non-linearities in sources/sinks from plasma-wall interactions, here sputtered fluxes from the plasma facing components. “Fluctuation dressed” sputtering yields Yeff are introduced and calculated from turbulence simulations. Properly taking fluctuations into account is shown to lead to higher sputtering at sub-threshold energies compared to mean field predictions. As a first step towards an implementation in a transport code, the possibility of parametrizing Yeff in terms of the mean fields is tentatively investigated.
Y. Marandet, H. Bufferand, N. Nace, M. Valentinuzzi, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Towards a consistent modelling of plasma edge turbulence in mean field transport codes: Focus on sputtering and plasma fluctuations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.931 - 934. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2017.02.007⟩. ⟨hal-01702229⟩
Eddy Constant, Julien Favier, Marcello Meldi, Philippe Meliga, Eric Serre. An immersed boundary method in OpenFOAM : Verification and validation. Computers and Fluids, 2017, 157, pp.55 - 72. ⟨10.1016/j.compfluid.2017.08.001⟩. ⟨hal-01591562⟩ Plus de détails...
The present work proposes a modified Pressure-Implicit Split-Operator (PISO) solver integrating the recent Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) proposed by Pinelli et al. [1] in order to perform reliable simulations of incompressible flows around bluff bodies using the open source toolbox OpenFOAM version 2.2 (ESI-OpenCFD [2]). The (IBM) allows for a precise representation of fixed and moving solid obstacles embedded in the physical domain, using uniform or stretched Cartesian meshes. Owing to this feature, the maximum level of accuracy and scalability of the numerical solvers can be systematically achieved. An iterative scheme based on sub-iterations between (IBM) and pressure correction has been implemented in the native (PISO) solver of OpenFOAM. This allows one to use fast optimized Poisson solvers while satisfying simultaneously the divergence-free flow state and the no-slip condition at the body surface. To compute the divergence of the momentum equation (in the PISO loop) and the interpolation of the fluxes, we propose an hybrid calculation with an analytical resolution (using the kernel function equation) of the quantities involving the force term (singular quantities). A careful and original verification study has been carried out which allows to estimate three different errors related to the discretization and to the (IBM). Various 2D and 3D well-documented test cases of academic flows around fixed or moving cylinders have been simulated and carefully validated against existing data from the literature in a large range of Reynolds numbers, Re = 30 − 3900 and in the frame of DNS and DDES OpenFOAM native models.
Eddy Constant, Julien Favier, Marcello Meldi, Philippe Meliga, Eric Serre. An immersed boundary method in OpenFOAM : Verification and validation. Computers and Fluids, 2017, 157, pp.55 - 72. ⟨10.1016/j.compfluid.2017.08.001⟩. ⟨hal-01591562⟩
G. Ciraolo, H. Bufferand, J. Bucalossi, Ph. Ghendrih, P. Tamain, et al.. H-mode WEST tungsten divertor operation: deuterium and nitrogen seeded simulations with SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.187 - 192. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2016.12.025⟩. ⟨hal-01702237⟩ Plus de détails...
Simulations of WEST H-mode divertor scenarios have been performed with SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE edge plasma transport code, both for pure deuterium and nitrogen seeded discharge. In the pure deuterium case, a target heat flux of 8 MW/m2 is reached, but misalignment between heat and the particle outflux yields 50 eV plasma temperature at the target plates. With nitrogen seeding, the heat and particle outflux are observed to be aligned so that lower plasma temperatures at the target plates are achieved together with the required high heat fluxes. This change in heat and particle outflux alignment is analysed with respect to the role of divertor geometry and the impact of vertical vs horizontal target plates on neutrals spreading.
G. Ciraolo, H. Bufferand, J. Bucalossi, Ph. Ghendrih, P. Tamain, et al.. H-mode WEST tungsten divertor operation: deuterium and nitrogen seeded simulations with SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.187 - 192. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2016.12.025⟩. ⟨hal-01702237⟩
Davide Galassi, P. Tamain, C. Baudoin, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Flux expansion effect on turbulent transport in 3D global simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.953 - 958. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2017.01.008⟩. ⟨hal-01702255⟩ Plus de détails...
The flux expansion effect on the Scrape-Off Layer equilibrium is inspected through TOKAM3X 3D turbulence simulations. Three magnetic equilibria with analytically controlled flux expansion are built, representing respectively a positive, a null and a negative Shafranov shift. Turbulent E × B fluxes across flux surfaces show similar amplitudes and poloidal distributions in all cases. The ballooning nature of the interchange instability is recovered, with an enhancement of turbulence in the vicinity of the limiter, probably due to a Kelvin–Helmoltz instability. Interestingly, the poloidally averaged density decay length is found to be shorter almost by a factor 2 in the case of flux surfaces compressed at the low-field side midplane, with respect to the opposite case, indicating the presence of unfavorable conditions for the turbulent transport. The difference in the magnetic field line shape is pointed out as a mechanism which affects the turbulent transport across the flux surfaces. Indeed the unstable region has a larger parallel extension when flux expansion in the low-field side is larger. Moreover, the configuration with a lower magnetic shear at the low-field side midplane shows a more unstable behavior. The role of this parameter in turbulence stabilization is qualitatively evaluated. The difference in the distribution of transport along the parallel direction is shown to affect also the parallel flows, which are analyzed for the three proposed cases.
Davide Galassi, P. Tamain, C. Baudoin, H. Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, et al.. Flux expansion effect on turbulent transport in 3D global simulations. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.953 - 958. ⟨10.1016/j.nme.2017.01.008⟩. ⟨hal-01702255⟩
Congshan Zhuo, Pierre Sagaut. Acoustic multipole sources for the regularized lattice Boltzmann method: Comparison with multiple-relaxation-time models in the inviscid limit. Physical Review E , 2017, 95 (6), pp.063301. ⟨10.1103/PhysRevE.95.063301⟩. ⟨hal-01548424⟩ Plus de détails...
Congshan Zhuo, Pierre Sagaut. Acoustic multipole sources for the regularized lattice Boltzmann method: Comparison with multiple-relaxation-time models in the inviscid limit. Physical Review E , 2017, 95 (6), pp.063301. ⟨10.1103/PhysRevE.95.063301⟩. ⟨hal-01548424⟩
Alekseenko Elena, Bernard Roux. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Brackish Ecosystems Subject to Strong Winds and Coastal Jets. Oceanography & Fisheries Open access Journal, 2017, 2 (4), pp.555595. ⟨10.19080/OFOAJ.2017.02.555595⟩. ⟨hal-01813859⟩ Plus de détails...
The bottom shear stress (BSS) in a windy Mediterranean lagoon has been carefully investigated through numerical modelling. BSS maps have been obtained for the entire lagoon. The aim is to compare BSS with its critical value in the near shoreareas selected for SAV replanting which are subject to downwind coastal jets.
Alekseenko Elena, Bernard Roux. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Restoration in Brackish Ecosystems Subject to Strong Winds and Coastal Jets. Oceanography & Fisheries Open access Journal, 2017, 2 (4), pp.555595. ⟨10.19080/OFOAJ.2017.02.555595⟩. ⟨hal-01813859⟩
Journal: Oceanography & Fisheries Open access Journal
Davide Galassi, P. Tamain, H. Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Ph. Ghendrih, et al.. Drive of parallel flows by turbulence and large-scale E × B transverse transport in divertor geometry. Nuclear Fusion, 2017, 57 (3), pp.036029. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/aa5332⟩. ⟨hal-01592945⟩ Plus de détails...
The poloidal asymmetries of parallel flows in edge plasmas are investigated by the 3D fluid turbulence code TOKAM3X. A diverted COMPASS-like magnetic equilibrium is used for the simulations. The measurements and simulations of parallel Mach numbers are compared, and exhibit good qualitative agreement. Small-scale turbulent transport is observed to dominate near the low field side midplane, even though it co-exists with significant large-scale cross-field fluxes. Despite the turbulent nature of the plasma in the divertor region, simulations show the low effectiveness of turbulence for the cross-field transport towards the private flux region. Nevertheless, a complex pattern of fluxes associated with the average field components are found to cross the separatrix in the divertor region. Large-scale and small-scale turbulent E x B transport, along with the del B drift, drive the asymmetries in parallel flows. A semian-alytical model based on mass and parallel momentum balances allows the poloidal drift effects on the asymmetry pattern to be evaluated. As in the experiments, a reversed B-T simulation provides a way of self-consistently separating the effects of turbulent transport and large-scale flows, which must be reversed for a reversed field. The large-scale contribution is found to be responsible for typically 50% of the effect on the Mach number, evaluated at the top of the machine. The presented picture shows the complex interplay between drifts and turbulence, underlining the necessity of a global approach to edge plasma modelling, including a self-consistent description of the turbulence.
Davide Galassi, P. Tamain, H. Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Ph. Ghendrih, et al.. Drive of parallel flows by turbulence and large-scale E × B transverse transport in divertor geometry. Nuclear Fusion, 2017, 57 (3), pp.036029. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/aa5332⟩. ⟨hal-01592945⟩
R.J.A. Howard, Eric Serre. Large eddy simulation in Code_Saturne of thermal mixing in a T junction with brass walls. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 2017, 63, pp.119 - 127. ⟨10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2016.09.011⟩. ⟨hal-01592931⟩ Plus de détails...
Following on from Kuhn et al (2010) we study the capability of large eddy simulation with conjugate heat transfer to predict thermal fluctuations with thermal mixing. Wall functions are used to model the wall heat transfer. Comparison with experimental results show that the temperature variance on the outer skin of the solid is well predicted by the simulation. It is shown that the variance of thermal flux in the fluid closely maps the temperature variance at the outer boundary of the solid. Since the variance of thermal flux is closely related to the dissipation of temperature variance it can be concluded that the dissipation of temperature variance in the fluid is linked to temperature variance in the solid. Analysis of the equation of the temperature variance in the solid confirms this is indeed the case. It is the dissipation of temperature variance in the fluid that characterizes how the temperature variance penetrates the solid. Thus RANS modelling can be used to predict thermal variance in solids provided that there is an accurate model for the dissipation of temperature variance at the wall and an equation for the thermal variance in the solid is solved.
R.J.A. Howard, Eric Serre. Large eddy simulation in Code_Saturne of thermal mixing in a T junction with brass walls. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 2017, 63, pp.119 - 127. ⟨10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2016.09.011⟩. ⟨hal-01592931⟩
Journal: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
Hugo Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, P Di Cintio, N Fedorczak, Ph Ghendrih, et al.. Nonlocal heat flux application for Scrape-off Layer plasma. Contributions to Plasma Physics, In press. ⟨hal-01655295⟩ Plus de détails...
The nonlocal expression proposed by Luciani-Mora-Virmont is implemented into a 1D fluid model for the scrape-off layer. Analytic solutions for heat equation are discussed as well as the impact of sheath boundary conditions on the continuity of the temperature profile. The nonlocal heat flux is compared to Spitzer-Härm heat flux for different collisionality.
Hugo Bufferand, G. Ciraolo, P Di Cintio, N Fedorczak, Ph Ghendrih, et al.. Nonlocal heat flux application for Scrape-off Layer plasma. Contributions to Plasma Physics, In press. ⟨hal-01655295⟩
Hugo Bufferand, C Baudoin, J Bucalossi, G Ciraolo, Julien Denis, et al.. Implementation of drift velocities and currents in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.852-857. ⟨hal-01372986⟩ Plus de détails...
In order to improve cross-field transport description, drifts and currents have been implemented in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE. The derivation of an equation for the electric potential is recalled. The resolution of current equation is tested in a simple slab case. WEST divertor simulations in forward-B and reverse-B fields are also discussed. A significant increase of ExB shear is observed in the forward-B configuration that could explain a favorable L-H transition in this case.
Hugo Bufferand, C Baudoin, J Bucalossi, G Ciraolo, Julien Denis, et al.. Implementation of drift velocities and currents in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE. Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017, 12, pp.852-857. ⟨hal-01372986⟩
Philippe Meliga, Olivier Cadot, Eric Serre. Experimental and Theoretical Sensitivity Analysis of Turbulent Flow Past a Square Cylinder. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 2016, 97 (4, SI), pp.987-1015. ⟨10.1007/s10494-016-9755-0⟩. ⟨hal-01461791⟩ Plus de détails...
We assess experimentally and theoretically the ability of a small control cylinder to alter vortex shedding in turbulent flow past a square cylinder at R e = 22,000. Results are presented in terms of sensitivity maps showing the flow regions where the shedding frequency and amplitude are most affected by the control cylinder. Experimental results are obtained for a ratio 0.02 of the cylinder diameters, over an extended domain covering the wake, the shear layers and the free stream. The shedding frequency can be either decreased or increased, the largest effects being obtained placing the control cylinder at the outer edge of the detached shear layers (associated with frequency decrease) or upstream of the square cylinder (associated with frequency increase, in contrast with previous results obtained for a D-shaped geometry of the main cylinder). In contrast, the oscillation amplitude is rarely decreased, meaning that any variation of the shedding frequency comes at the expense of more intense vortex shedding. These findings are revisited in the frame of a theoretical, linear sensitivity analysis of the time-averaged mean flow, performed using adjoint methods in the frame of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes modeling. We show that the retained approach carries valuable information in view of guiding efficient control strategy, as it allows identifying the main regions yielding either a decrease or an increase of the shedding frequency in striking agreement with the experiments. This is a tremendous timesaving in so far as the controlled states need not be computed, the overall computational cost being roughly that of computing the mean flow. In contrast, performing the sensitivity analysis on the underlying unstable steady state yields flawed predictions, hence stressing the need to encompass some level of mean coherent-coherent perturbations interaction in the linear model.
Philippe Meliga, Olivier Cadot, Eric Serre. Experimental and Theoretical Sensitivity Analysis of Turbulent Flow Past a Square Cylinder. Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, 2016, 97 (4, SI), pp.987-1015. ⟨10.1007/s10494-016-9755-0⟩. ⟨hal-01461791⟩
Patrick Tamain, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Clothilde Colin, Davide Galassi, et al.. The TOKAM3X code for edge turbulence fluid simulations of tokamak plasmas in versatile magnetic geometries. Journal of Computational Physics, 2016, 321, pp.606-623. ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2016.05.038⟩. ⟨hal-01461797⟩ Plus de détails...
The new code TOKAM3X simulates plasma turbulence in full torus geometry including the open field lines of the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) and the edge closed field lines region in the vicinity of the separatrix. Based on drift-reduced Braginskii equations, TOKAM3X is able to simulate both limited and diverted plasmas. Turbulence is flux driven by incoming particles from the core plasma and no scale separation between the equilibrium and the fluctuations is assumed so that interactions between large scale flows and turbulence are consistently treated. Based on a domain decomposition, specific numerical schemes are proposed using conservative finite-differences associated to a semi-implicit time advancement. The process computation is multi-threaded and based on MPI and OpenMP libraries. In this paper, fluid model equations are presented together with the proposed numerical methods. The code is verified using the manufactured solution technique and validated through documented simple experiments. Finally, first simulations of edge plasma turbulence in X-point geometry are also introduced in a JET geometry. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Patrick Tamain, Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Clothilde Colin, Davide Galassi, et al.. The TOKAM3X code for edge turbulence fluid simulations of tokamak plasmas in versatile magnetic geometries. Journal of Computational Physics, 2016, 321, pp.606-623. ⟨10.1016/j.jcp.2016.05.038⟩. ⟨hal-01461797⟩
Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Philippe Ghendrih, Yannick Marandet, J. Bucalossi, et al.. Interchange Turbulence Model for the Edge Plasma in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2016, 56 (6-8), pp.555-562. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201610033⟩. ⟨hal-01455239⟩ Plus de détails...
Cross-field transport in edge tokamak plasmas is known to be dominated by turbulent transport. A dedicated effort has been made to simulate this turbulent transport from first principle models but the numerical cost to run these simulations on the ITER scale remains prohibitive. Edge plasma transport study relies mostly nowadays on so-called transport codes where the turbulent transport is taken into account using effective ad-hoc diffusion coeffecients. In this contribution, we propose to introduce a transport equation for the turbulence intensity in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE to describe the interchange turbulence properties. Going beyond the empirical diffusive model, this system automatically generates profiles for the turbulent transport and hence reduces the number of degrees of freedom for edge plasma transport codes. We draw inspiration from the k-epsilon model widely used in the neutral fluid community. ((c) 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Hugo Bufferand, Guido Ciraolo, Philippe Ghendrih, Yannick Marandet, J. Bucalossi, et al.. Interchange Turbulence Model for the Edge Plasma in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2016, 56 (6-8), pp.555-562. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201610033⟩. ⟨hal-01455239⟩
R. Futtersack, C. Colin, Patrick Tamain, Guido Ciraolo, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. First Principle Modelling of Interplay between Langmuir Probes and Plasma Turbulence. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2016, 56 (6-8), pp.575-580. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201610038⟩. ⟨hal-01455240⟩ Plus de détails...
The interplay between Langmuir probes (LP) and Scrape-Off-Layer plasma turbulence is numerically investigated with the TOKAM2D and TOKAM3X fluid codes. The LP is modelled by biasing a part of the target plates surface; we then study its impact on the turbulent transport 1) in presence of electron temperature fluctuations and 2) with a complete description of the parallel dynamics. We find that a biased probe can disturb local plasma parameters as well as turbulent transport in its vicinity, by polarizing the connected flux tube and thus driving a strong ExB vortex. Moreover, electron temperature fluctuations are found to account significantly those of floating potential, but with a limited impact on flux measurements depending on the probe's exact geometry. The 3D study of the problem shows the attenuation, but the persistency, of these perturbations induced by the presence of the LP. ((c) 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
R. Futtersack, C. Colin, Patrick Tamain, Guido Ciraolo, Philippe Ghendrih, et al.. First Principle Modelling of Interplay between Langmuir Probes and Plasma Turbulence. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2016, 56 (6-8), pp.575-580. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201610038⟩. ⟨hal-01455240⟩
Patrick Tamain, Hugo Bufferand, L. Carbajal, Yannick Marandet, C. Baudoin, et al.. Interplay between Plasma Turbulence and Particle Injection in 3D Global Simulations. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 2016, 56 (6-8), pp.569-574. ⟨10.1002/ctpp.201610063⟩. ⟨hal-01455242⟩ Plus de détails...
The impact of a 3D localized particle source on the edge plasma in 3D global turbulence simulations is investigated using the TOKAM3X fluid code. Results apply to advanced fueling methods such as Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection (SMBI) or pellets injection. The fueling source is imposed as a volumetric particle source in the simulations so that the physics leading to the ionization of particles and its localization are not taken into account. As already observed in experiments, the localized particle source strongly perturbs both turbulence and the large scale organization of the edge plasma. The localized increase of the pressure generated by the source drives sonic parallel flows in the plasma, leading to a poloidal redistribution of the particles on the time scale of the source duration. However, the particle deposition also drives localized transverse pressure gradients which impacts the stability of the plasma with respect to interchange processes. The resulting radial transport occurs on a suff